Roof Types Section

Configuration

Internal Floating Roof (IFR)

Summary

Preview

Column Structurally-Supported Cone Roof 650 IFR Carbon Steel

Column / Structurally Supported Cone Roof

A common fixed-roof design for tanks with relatively low pressure.  They contain a shallow cone roof utilizing a center column of pipe or structural steel. Intermediate columns are commonly used on larger diameter tanks.  Internal framing is used to support the roof plates;  this may include supporting rafters, clips, tie bars and girders.  A frangible roof joint may be designed for added protection in the event of a sudden increase in internal pressure.

Column Structurally Supported Cone Roof Tank

Highlights

  • Permits for a large diameter roof design
  • Roof can be sealed and VRU can be used
  • Rigid structure can be designed for large snow loads

Column Structurally Supported Cone Roof Tanks

Internal Floating Roof (Carbon Steel)

Under the fixed-roof tank,  an internal floating-roof is commonly used for the storage of many petroleum and chemical products. TIW custom designs single and double deck variations constructed of welded steel. The internal floating roof provides an effective and practical means of reducing vapor emissions from stored volatile liquids. Rim seal systems seal the space between the floating deck and tank shell. Additional seals are installed around each column.

Highlights

  • Internal floating roof (IFR) is protected from the environment.
  • No deck drain required on internal floaters.

Carbon Steel Internal Floating Roof

Summary

Preview

Column Structurally-Supported Cone Roof 650 IFR Aluminum

Column / Structurally Supported Cone Roof

A common fixed-roof design for tanks with relatively low pressure. They contain a shallow cone roof utilizing a center column of pipe or structural steel. Intermediate columns are commonly used on larger diameter tanks. Internal framing is used to support the roof plates; this may include supporting rafters, clips, tie bars and girders. A frangible roof joint may be designed for added protection in the event of a sudden increase in internal pressure.

Column Structurally Supported Cone Roof Tank

Highlights

  • Permits for a large diameter roof design
  • Roof can be sealed and VRU can be used
  • Rigid structure can be designed for large snow loads

Column Structurally Supported Cone Roof Tank

Internal Floating Roof (Aluminum)

A single light aluminum deck serves as a horizontal membrane that moves up and down to reduce vapour loss. Vents in the roof allow the tank to operate at atmospheric pressure. Seals are installed around each column as well as around the periphery of the floating roof.

Highlights

  • Internal floating roof (IFR) is protected from the environment
  • No deck drain required on internal floaters
  • Aluminum floaters are light weight and relatively easy to install
  • Small panels are replaceable over time
  • Can be cable supported. i.e no deck legs required
  • Maintenance and operating heights can be adjusted with cables outside of the tank during operation
  • Coating is not required on the floating deck

Aluminum Floating Deck

Summary

Preview

Column Structurally-Supported Cone Roof 650 NO-IFR

Column / Structurally Supported Cone Roof

A common fixed-roof design for tanks with relatively low pressure. They contain a shallow cone roof utilizing a center column of pipe or structural steel. Intermediate columns are commonly used on larger diameter tanks. Internal framing is used to support the roof plates; this may include supporting rafters, clips, tie bars and girders. A frangible roof joint may be designed for added protection in the event of a sudden increase in internal pressure.

Stainless Column Structurally Supported Cone Roof Tank

Highlights

  • Permits for a large diameter roof design
  • Roof can be sealed and VRU can be used
  • Rigid structure can be designed for large snow loads

Column Structurally Supported Cone Roof Tank

Internal Floating Roof

None selected

Configuration

Internal Floating Roof (IFR)

Externally Stiffened

Summary

Preview

Self-Supporting Cone Roof 650 IFR Carbon Steel

Self-Supporting Cone

Suitable for small diameter tanks. Roof is supported at the shell.

Highlights

  • Roof can be sealed
  • No internal columns, eliminating opportunities for corrosion and hang-ups during operation

Self Supporting Cone Roof Tanks

Internal Floating Roof (Carbon Steel)

Under the fixed-roof tank,  an internal floating-roof is commonly used for the storage of many petroleum and chemical products. TIW custom designs single and double deck variations constructed of welded steel. The internal floating roof provides an effective and practical means of reducing vapor emissions from stored volatile liquids. Rim seal systems seal the space between the floating deck and tank shell. Additional seals are installed around each column.

Highlights

  • Internal floating roof (IFR) is protected from the environment
  • No deck drain required on internal floaters

Carbon Steel Internal Floating Roof

Summary

Preview

Self-Supporting Cone Roof 650 IFR Carbon Steel Externally Stiffened

Self-Supporting Cone (Externally Stiffened)

Suitable for medium size diameter tanks.  The external stiffening can allow additional support for platforms and structures on the roof.

Highlights

  • Suitable for tanks with internal roof coating
  • External Stiffening allows for a medium sized roof diameter
  • Roof can be sealed and VRU can be used

Self-Supporting Stiffened Cone Roof Tank

Internal Floating Roof (Carbon Steel)

Under the fixed-roof tank,  an internal floating-roof is commonly used for the storage of many petroleum and chemical products. TIW custom designs single and double deck variations constructed of welded steel. The internal floating roof provides an effective and practical means of reducing vapor emissions from stored volatile liquids. Rim seal systems seal the space between the floating deck and tank shell. Additional seals are installed around each column.

Highlights

  • Internal floating roof (IFR) is protected from the environment
  • No deck drain required on internal floaters

Carbon Steel Internal Floating Roof

Externally Stiffened

Summary

Preview

Self-Supporting Cone Roof 650 IFR Aluminum

Self-Supporting Cone

Suitable for small diameter tanks. Roof is supported at the shell.

Highlights

  • Roof can be sealed
  • No internal columns, eliminating opportunities for corrosion and hang-ups during operation

Self Supporting Cone Roof Tank

Internal Floating Roof (Aluminum)

A single light aluminum deck serves as a horizontal membrane that moves up and down to reduce vapour loss. Vents in the roof allow the tank to operate at atmospheric pressure. Seals are installed around each column as well as around the periphery of the floating roof.

Highlights

  • Internal floating roof (IFR) is protected from the environment
  • No deck drain required on internal floaters
  • Aluminum floaters are light weight and relatively easy to install
  • Small panels are replaceable over time
  • Can be cable supported. i.e no deck legs required
  • Maintenance and operating heights can be adjusted with cables outside of the tank during operation
  • Coating is not required on the floating deck

Aluminum Floating Deck

Summary

Preview

Self-Supporting Cone Roof 650 IFR Aluminum Externally Stiffened

Self-Supporting Cone (Externally Stiffened)

Suitable for medium size diameter tanks.  The external stiffening can allow additional support for platforms and structures on the roof.

Highlights

  • Suitable for tanks with internal roof coating
  • External Stiffening allows for a medium sized roof diameter
  • Roof can be sealed and VRU can be used

Self Supporting Stiffened Cone Roof Tank

Internal Floating Roof (Aluminum)

A single light aluminum deck serves as a horizontal membrane that moves up and down to reduce vapour loss. Vents in the roof allow the tank to operate at atmospheric pressure. Seals are installed around each column as well as around the periphery of the floating roof.

Highlights

  • Internal floating roof (IFR) is protected from the environment
  • No deck drain required on internal floaters
  • Aluminum floaters are light weight and relatively easy to install
  • Small panels are replaceable over time
  • Can be cable supported. i.e no deck legs required
  • Maintenance and operating heights can be adjusted with cables outside of the tank during operation
  • Coating is not required on the floating deck

Aluminum Floating Deck

Externally Stiffened

Summary

Preview

Self-Supporting Cone Roof 650 NO IFR

Self-Supporting Cone

Suitable for small diameter tanks. Roof is supported at the shell.

Highlights

  • Roof can be sealed
  • No internal columns, eliminating opportunities for corrosion and hang-ups during operation

Self-Supporting-Cone-Roof Tank

Internal Floating Roof

None selected

Summary

Preview

Self-Supporting Cone Roof 650 NO IFR Externally Stiffened

Self-Supporting Cone (Externally Stiffened)

Suitable for medium size diameter tanks.  The external stiffening can allow additional support for platforms and structures on the roof.

Highlights

  • Suitable for tanks with internal roof coating
  • External Stiffening allows for a medium sized roof diameter
  • Roof can be sealed and VRU can be used

Self Supporting Stiffened Cone Roof

Internal Floating Roof

None selected

Configuration

Internal Floating Roof (IFR)

Externally Stiffened

Summary

Preview

Self-Supporting Umbrella Roof IFR Carbon Steel

Self-Supporting Umbrella

The umbrella roof consists of a modified dome, where the horizontal section is a regular polygon with multiple sides with roof plates, supported only at the periphery.  Dome roofs are also possible at a higher cost

Highlights

  • Can often be built from thinner material than a cone
  • The bulk of the roof work can take place at grade
  • Suitable for tanks with internal roof coating
  • Roof can be sealed and VRU can be used

API 650 Self Supporting Umbrella Roof

Internal Floating Roof (Carbon Steel)

Under the fixed-roof tank,  an internal floating-roof is commonly used for the storage of many petroleum and chemical products. TIW custom designs single and double deck variations constructed of welded steel. The internal floating roof provides an effective and practical means of reducing vapor emissions from stored volatile liquids. Rim seal systems seal the space between the floating deck and tank shell. Additional seals are installed around each column.

Highlights

  • Internal floating roof (IFR) is protected from the environment
  • No deck drain required on internal floaters

Carbon Steel Internal Floating Roof

Summary

Preview

Self-Supporting Umbrella Roof IFR Carbon Steel Externally Stiffened

Self-Supporting Umbrella (Externally Stiffened)

Externally stiffened umbrella roofs are used on large diameter tanks. The umbrella roof consists of a modified dome, where the horizontal section is a regular polygon with multiple sides with roof plates, supported only at the periphery.  Dome roofs are also possible at a higher cost.

Highlights

  • Can often be built from thinner material than a cone
  • The bulk of the roof work can take place at grade
  • Suitable for tanks with internal roof coating
  • External Stiffening allows for a large sized roof diameter
  • Roof can be sealed and VRU can be used

Self Supporting Stiffened Umbrella Roof

Internal Floating Roof (Carbon Steel)

Under the fixed-roof tank,  an internal floating-roof is commonly used for the storage of many petroleum and chemical products. TIW custom designs single and double deck variations constructed of welded steel. The internal floating roof provides an effective and practical means of reducing vapor emissions from stored volatile liquids. Rim seal systems seal the space between the floating deck and tank shell. Additional seals are installed around each column.

Highlights

  • Internal floating roof (IFR) is protected from the environment
  • No deck drain required on internal floaters

Carbon Steel Internal Floating Roof

Externally Stiffened

Summary

Preview

Self-Supporting Umbrella Roof IFR Aluminum

Self-Supporting Umbrella

The umbrella roof consists of a modified dome, where the horizontal section is a regular polygon with multiple sides with roof plates, supported only at the periphery.  Dome roofs are also possible at a higher cost

Highlights

  • Can often be built from thinner material than a cone
  • The bulk of the roof work can take place at grade
  • Suitable for tanks with internal roof coating
  • Roof can be sealed and VRU can be used

Self Supporting Umbrella Roof at Grade

Internal Floating Roof (Aluminum)

A single light aluminum deck serves as a horizontal membrane that moves up and down to reduce vapour loss. Vents in the roof allow the tank to operate at atmospheric pressure. Seals are installed around each column as well as around the periphery of the floating roof.

Highlights

  • Internal floating roof (IFR) is protected from the environment
  • No deck drain required on internal floaters
  • Aluminum floaters are light weight and relatively easy to install
  • Small panels are replaceable over time
  • Can be cable supported. i.e no deck legs required
  • Maintenance and operating heights can be adjusted with cables outside of the tank during operation
  • Coating is not required on the floating deck

Aluminum Floating Deck

Summary

Preview

Self-Supporting Umbrella Roof IFR Aluminum Exteranlly Stiffened

Self-Supporting Umbrella (Externally Stiffened)

The umbrella roof consists of a modified dome, where the horizontal section is a regular polygon with multiple sides with roof plates, supported only at the periphery.  Dome roofs are also possible at a higher cost.

Highlights

  • Can often be built from thinner material than a cone
  • The bulk of the roof work can take place at grade
  • Suitable for tanks with internal roof coating
  • Roof can be sealed and VRU can be used

Self Supporting Stiffened Umbrella Roof Tank

Internal Floating Roof (Aluminum)

A single light aluminum deck serves as a horizontal membrane that moves up and down to reduce vapour loss. Vents in the roof allow the tank to operate at atmospheric pressure. Seals are installed around each column as well as around the periphery of the floating roof.

Highlights

  • Internal floating roof (IFR) is protected from the environment
  • No deck drain required on internal floaters
  • Aluminum floaters are light weight and relatively easy to install
  • Small panels are replaceable over time
  • Can be cable supported. i.e no deck legs required
  • Maintenance and operating heights can be adjusted with cables outside of the tank during operation
  • Coating is not required on the floating deck

Aluminum Floating Deck

Externally Stiffened

Summary

Preview

Self-Supporting Umbrella Roof No IFR

Self-Supporting Umbrella

The umbrella roof consists of a modified dome, where the horizontal section is a regular polygon with multiple sides with roof plates, supported only at the periphery.  Dome roofs are also possible at a higher cost.

Highlights

  • Can often be built from thinner material than a cone
  • The bulk of the roof work can take place at grade
  • Suitable for tanks with internal roof coating
  • Roof can be sealed and VRU can be used

Self Supporting Umbrella Roof Raise

Internal Floating Roof

None selected

Summary

Preview

Self-Supporting Umbrella Roof No IFR Externally Stiffened

Self-Supporting Umbrella (Externally Stiffened)

The umbrella roof consists of a modified dome, where the horizontal section is a regular polygon with multiple sides with roof plates, supported only at the periphery.  Dome roofs are also possible at a higher cost.

Highlights

  • Can often be built from thinner material than a cone
  • The bulk of the roof work can take place at grade
  • Suitable for tanks with internal roof coating
  • Roof can be sealed and VRU can be used

Self Supporting Stiffened Umbrella Roof

Internal Floating Roof

None selected

Configuration

Internal Floating Roof (IFR)

Summary

Preview

Geodesic Dome Roof IFR Carbon Steel

Geodesic Dome

These clear-span, space frame structures are corrosion-resistant, easy to maintain, and customizable.

Highlights

  • They are Light weight
  • Naturally corrosion resistant. No coatings required
  • No internal columns or penetration of floating roofs needed
  • Emissions reduction
  • Can be constructed either on tank or elsewhere on site

Geodesic Dome Roof Tank

Internal Floating Roof (Carbon Steel)

Under the fixed-roof tank,  an internal floating-roof is commonly used for the storage of many petroleum and chemical products. TIW custom designs single and double deck variations constructed of welded steel. The internal floating roof provides an effective and practical means of reducing vapor emissions from stored volatile liquids. Rim seal systems seal the space between the floating deck and tank shell. Additional seals are installed around each column.

Highlights

  • Internal floating roof (IFR) is protected from the environment
  • No deck drain required on internal floaters

API 650 Tank Geodesic Dome Carbon Steel Internal Floating Roof

Summary

Preview

Geodesic Dome

These clear-span, space frame structures are corrosion-resistant, easy to maintain, and customizable.

Highlights

  • They are Light weight
  • Naturally corrosion resistant. No coatings required
  • No internal columns or penetration of floating roofs needed
  • Emissions reduction
  • Can be constructed either on tank or elsewhere on site

Geodesic Dome Roof Tank

Internal Floating Roof (Aluminum)

A single light aluminum deck serves as a horizontal membrane that moves up and down to reduce vapour loss. Vents in the roof allow the tank to operate at atmospheric pressure. Seals are installed around each column as well as around the periphery of the floating roof.

Highlights

  • Internal floating roof (IFR) is protected from the environment
  • No deck drain required on internal floaters
  • Aluminum floaters are light weight and relatively easy to install
  • Small panels are replaceable over time
  • Can be cable supported. i.e no deck legs required
  • Maintenance and operating heights can be adjusted with cables outside of the tank during operation
  • Coating is not required on the floating deck

Geodesic Dome Assembly at Grade

Summary

Preview

Geodesic Dome Roof No IFR

Geodesic Dome

The umbrella roof consists of a modified dome, where the horizontal section is a regular polygon with multiple sides with roof plates, supported only at the periphery.  Dome roofs are also possible at a higher cost.

Highlights

  • They are Light weight
  • Naturally corrosion resistant. No coatings required
  • Emissions reduction
  • Can be constructed either on tank or elsewhere on site

Geodesic Dome Roof Tanks

Internal Floating Roof

None selected

API 650 Tank Geodesic Dome Roof Raise

Configuration

External Floating Roof

Summary

Preview

Open Top API 650 Externally Stiffened

Open Top Floater

These tanks are commonly found in terminals across Canada, and are used for storing bulk quantities of petrochemicals. These tanks come in a large range of sizes with diameters ranging from 20’ to 350’.

Highlights

  • Simple design

Open Top Floater with Carbon Steel External Floating Roof

External Floating Roof

  • Easy access with rolling ladder
  • Highly customizable
  • Safe for maintenance as you can easily walk on the floating deck

Open Top External Floating Roof and Rolling Ladder

Summary

Preview

Open Top Tank

These tanks are commonly found in mining and waste water facilities where the open top design does not have a negative effect on the stored product.

Highlights

  • Simple Design
  • Highly customizable

API 650 Tanks under Construction

External Options

  • Ideal for external process equipment. i.e. an agitator

 

API 650 Tank Open Top Agitator

Design Specifics

With over a century in tank design & field erection, we’ve continually developed and critiqued our design and construction process, producing a safer and longer lasting tank. Some design specifics considered include:

Considerations

  • Allowable external Loads on tank shell openings
  • Internal & external Pressures
  • Environmental loads (wind, seismic, snow, importance factors)
  • Foundation design
  • Design based on tanks operating at elevated temperatures
  • Design based on tanks operating at lower temperatures
  • Single or double bottoms

Requirements

  • Product conditions
  • Maximum capacity
  • Secondary containment
  • Internal or external floating roofs

Materials of Construction

  • Carbon steel, stainless steel or duplex steel

Corrosion Protection

  • Linings, coatings, wallpapering
  • Cathodic protection

Access Systems

  • Floating roof access options
  • Radial or spiral stairways
  • Roof access systems

Heat Conservation

  • Various insulation products

Appurtenances

Our design engineers can customize a wide range of appurtenances on the interior and exterior of your tank.  At our in-house, 200,000 sq ft material processing plant, we fabricate everything from pontoons, nozzles, vents and piping to custom stairways, platforms and rolling ladders.

Here are some typical components we design, fabricate and install on our API 650 tanks…

Internal Components

  • Integrated Liquid Level Gauges and Gauge Poles
  • Heating Coils
  • Baffles
  • Piping Subsystems for Multi-Level Sampling
    • Overflow
    • Draw-Off
    • Diffusers
    • Pumping

Steel Floating Decks

  • Single & Double Deck Floating Roofs with Legs & Components
  • Deck Drains & Sumps
  • Internal Rolling Ladders

External Attachments

  • Nozzles (with flanges, elbows, couplings and more)
  • Ladders, Spiral and Radial Stairways:
    • Single and Double Stringer Designs with Handrail Variations
  • Roof Walkways, Platforms and Joining Catwalks
  • Flush Cleanout Manways, Shell Manways and Mixer Manways
  • Rectangular and Circular Hatches
  • Fire Protection Foam Piping
  • Wind Girders (with railings)
  • Insulation Rings
  • Lightning Arrestors
  • Rescue Davits
  • Shell Vents, Circulation Vents
  • Piping Supports, Cable Support Trays and Grounding Lugs

API 650 Standard

TIW designs tanks to both API 650, API 620 and AWWA D-100, each having its place depending on the specific requirements of the product being stored. API 650 is the most common standard for tanks that store oil, gasoline, chemicals and process water.

  • API 650 Standard

    Requirement

    The American Petroleum Industry (API) has established the 650 standard, setting minimum requirements for the design, material, construction, and testing of aboveground, open and closed-top, cylindrical welded steel storage tanks of various capacities and sizes.
    They are designed as non-refrigerated tanks with a minimum material thickness of 3/16 inch of carbon steel, austenitic duplex stainless steel, and aluminium. Supporting an internal pressure of 2.½ PSI or less and an operating temperature of -40° F to 500° F. They are commonly used to store products such as crude oil, petroleum by-products, chemicals and process water.

    Repairs, Modifications & Testing

    The API 650 Standard provides details for the minimum testing to be performed to ensure quality workmanship of the tank along with a separate standard, API 653, dedicated to providing a complete set of procedures and tests, specifically for the repair of API 650 tanks.

    We are well-known for our expertise in performing repairs and modifications for a wide range of customers. Please see our API 653 Repair Services for more details.

  • API 620 Standard

    Requirements

    The API 620 Standard governs the design and construction of large, welded, low-pressure storage tanks. These tanks require an elevated, flat or cone bottom, and a minimum material thickness of 3/16 of an inch in carbon steel, austenitic stainless steel and nickel alloys (low temperature only). These tanks operate as low as -325° F to 250° F with an operating pressure of up to 15 PSI. They are generally utilized for cryogenic liquefies such as LOX, LIN or LNG as well as other chemicals which require internal design pressures exceeding those allowed by 650 tanks.

  • AWWA D-100 Standard

    Requirement

    The American Water Works Association has set these guidelines for the construction of welded carbon steel tanks for water storage. The American National Standards Institute has adopted them as best practices within the industry for designing and building tanks to be used in water systems where the internal pressure does not to exceed atmospheric pressure.

Managed Services

Protective Coatings & Insulation

Given the diversity of the stored products and their chemical properties, there are a wide variety of protective coating options that we can provide for corrosion prevention.  TIW can offer a variety of external coatings, full or partial internal lining, vapour space coating and application of custom decals.

We also offer alternate corrosion options such as hot dip galvanizing, coating over galvanized components and fireproof coating.

Shop Pre-Coating

TIW can shop coat floor plates, shell plates, appurtenances, floating deck plates and pontoons prior to shipping to site.  This can help offset the high prices of field coating and help minimize open-air blasting which can be environmentally prohibited in some project locations.

Galvanizing

We provide galvanizing of various tank components – from nozzles, piping and support clips to handrails, ladders and platforms. In some cases, both galvanizing and coating are applied providing a superior protection.

Three API 650 Tanks

Exterior Coatings

These coatings are applied to the exterior of tanks or vessels for corrosion protection and cosmetic appearance. Some typical coatings we use include:

  • High-performance epoxy primers and finish coatings
  • Inorganic zinc coatings
  • Holding primers
  • Acrylic polyurethane coatings
  • High-temperature coatings
API 650 Tanks

Interior Linings

The interior surfaces of these tanks are typically lined with a submersion grade epoxy lining, from the floor to 1 meter up the shell (in oil tanks), whereas the interiors of water or other process tanks may be completely coated. TIW removes all sharp edges before sandblasting any area, and can perform complete Holiday testing (to test for voids in the liner), prior to signing off on the lining. Typical linings used include:

  • Epoxy primers
  • Epoxy finish coatings
  • High temperature coatings
Insulation of API 650 Self Supported Stiffened Umbrella Roof Tank

Insulation

When temperature control is required per design, TIW can supply and install a variety of mechanical insulation to meet the customer’s requirements. Insulation options can vary from the more common insulation batts with external cladding to prefabricated insulated panels. There are also different insulation and cladding material options. Depending on design and temperature requirements, TIW can offer several insulation materials such as

  • Fiberglass
  • Calcium silicate
  • Mineral wool
  • Cellular glass
  • Perlite
  • Polyisocyanurate
  • Thin blanket
  • Aerogel

 

 

Stainless Lining of an alcohol Distilling Tank

Wallpapering

Wallpapering is a term used to describe the installation of thin sheets of stainless steel inside a vessel.  These sheets are first tacked into place and then seal welded from the inside. Typically the sheets are patterned similarly to shingles on a roof.

Refineries

Stainless steel and stainless-clad wallpapering are commonly used in the oil refining industries for repair purposes.  Often used to line existing carbon steel pressure vessels and components to prevent corrosion and wear on interior surfaces, these valuable upgrades can prolong the lifespan of the vessel, reducing operational costs.

Food & Beverage

As regulations become more stringent, the use of stainless steel and stainless-clad tanks in the food &  beverage sectors have increased significantly. Stainless steel is a sanitary and durable material often used to line carbon steel vessels.  Lining the interior surfaces prevents corrosion and wear of the outer structural shell while maintaining compliance with standards and regulations.